Translation History

The first important translation in the West was that of the Septuagint, a collection of Jewish Scriptures translated into early Koine Greek in Alexandria between the 3rd and 1st centuries BCE. The dispersed Jews had forgotten their ancestral language and needed Greek versions (translations) of their Scriptures.[47]

 

Throughout the Middle Ages, Latin was the lingua franca of the western learned world. The 9th-century Alfred the Great, king of Wessex in England, was far ahead of his time in commissioning vernacular Anglo-Saxon translations of Bede’s Ecclesiastical History and Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy. Meanwhile the Christian Church frowned on even partial adaptations of St. Jerome’s Vulgate of ca. 384 CE,[48] the standard Latin Bible.

 

In Asia, the spread of Buddhism led to large-scale ongoing translation efforts spanning well over a thousand years. The Tangut Empire was especially efficient in such efforts; exploiting the then newly invented block printing, and with the full support of the government (contemporary sources describe the Emperor and his mother personally contributing to the translation effort, alongside sages of various nationalities), the Tanguts took mere decades to translate volumes that had taken the Chinese centuries to render.[citation needed]

 

Large-scale efforts at translation were undertaken by the Arabs. Having conquered the Greek world, they made Arabic versions of its philosophical and scientific works. During the Middle Ages, some translations of these Arabic versions were made into Latin, chiefly at Córdoba in Spain.[49] Such Latin translations of Greek and original Arab works of scholarship and science helped advance the development of European Scholasticism.

Geoffrey Chaucer

 

The broad historic trends in Western translation practice may be illustrated on the example of translation into the English language.

 

The first fine translations into English were made in the 14th century by Geoffrey Chaucer, who adapted from the Italian of Giovanni Boccaccio in his own Knight’s Tale and Troilus and Criseyde; began a translation of the French-language Roman de la Rose; and completed a translation of Boethius from the Latin. Chaucer founded an English poetic tradition on adaptations and translations from those earlier-established literary languages.[49]

 

The first great English translation was the Wycliffe Bible (ca. 1382), which showed the weaknesses of an underdeveloped English prose. Only at the end of the 15th century did the great age of English prose translation begin with Thomas Malory’s Le Morte Darthur—an adaptation of Arthurian romances so free that it can, in fact, hardly be called a true translation. The first great Tudor translations are, accordingly, the Tyndale New Testament (1525), which influenced the Authorized Version (1611), and Lord Berners’ version of Jean Froissart’s Chronicles (1523–25).[49]

Marsilio Ficino

 

Meanwhile, in Renaissance Italy, a new period in the history of translation had opened in Florence with the arrival, at the court of Cosimo de’ Medici, of the Byzantine scholar Georgius Gemistus Pletho shortly before the fall of Constantinople to the Turks (1453). A Latin translation of Plato’s works was undertaken by Marsilio Ficino. This and Erasmus’ Latin edition of the New Testament led to a new attitude to translation. For the first time, readers demanded rigor of rendering, as philosophical and religious beliefs depended on the exact words of Plato, Aristotle and Jesus.[49]

 

Non-scholarly literature, however, continued to rely on adaptation. France’s Pléiade, England’s Tudor poets, and the Elizabethan translators adapted themes by Horace, Ovid, Petrarch and modern Latin writers, forming a new poetic style on those models. The English poets and translators sought to supply a new public, created by the rise of a middle class and the development of printing, with works such as the original authors would have written, had they been writing in England in that day.[49]

Edward FitzGerald

 

The Elizabethan period of translation saw considerable progress beyond mere paraphrase toward an ideal of stylistic equivalence, but even to the end of this period, which actually reached to the middle of the 17th century, there was no concern for verbal accuracy.[50]

 

In the second half of the 17th century, the poet John Dryden sought to make Virgil speak “in words such as he would probably have written if he were living and an Englishman”. Dryden, however, discerned no need to emulate the Roman poet’s subtlety and concision. Similarly, Homer suffered from Alexander Pope’s endeavor to reduce the Greek poet’s “wild paradise” to order.[50]

Benjamin Jowett

 

Throughout the 18th century, the watchword of translators was ease of reading. Whatever they did not understand in a text, or thought might bore readers, they omitted. They cheerfully assumed that their own style of expression was the best, and that texts should be made to conform to it in translation. For scholarship they cared no more than had their predecessors, and they did not shrink from making translations from translations in third languages, or from languages that they hardly knew, or—as in the case of James Macpherson’s “translations” of Ossian—from texts that were actually of the “translator’s” own composition.[50]

 

The 19th century brought new standards of accuracy and style. In regard to accuracy, observes J.M. Cohen, the policy became “the text, the whole text, and nothing but the text”, except for any bawdy passages and the addition of copious explanatory footnotes.[51] In regard to style, the Victorians’ aim, achieved through far-reaching metaphrase (literality) or pseudo-metaphrase, was to constantly remind readers that they were reading a foreign classic. An exception was the outstanding translation in this period, Edward FitzGerald’s Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (1859), which achieved its Oriental flavor largely by using Persian names and discreet Biblical echoes and actually drew little of its material from the Persian original.[50]

 

In advance of the 20th century, a new pattern was set in 1871 by Benjamin Jowett, who translated Plato into simple, straightforward language. Jowett’s example was not followed, however, until well into the new century, when accuracy rather than style became the principal criterion.[50]

 

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Hello مرحبا
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How old are you? كم عمرك
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Thank you شكرا لك
No, isn’t كلا
What is this? ما هذا؟
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Hotel فندق
Car park موقف سيارات
Mosque مسجد
Good morning صباح الخير
Good afternoon تحية ما بعد الظهر حتى المساء
Good evening مساء الخير
Good bye مع السلامة
Car سيارة
A football كرة قدم
An airplane طائرة
Boat قارب
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Nurse ممرضة
Doctor طبيب
Glass كأس
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Translation History – Translate

Hesperian theory

Apostle Poet

 

Discussions of the theory and grooming of version tug hindermost into antiquity and convey remarkable continuities. The ancient Greeks eminent between metaphrase (exact movement) and rewording. This preeminence was adopted by English poet and translator Book Dramatist (1631-1700), who described rendering as the wise blending of these two modes of phrasing when selecting, in the point module, “counterparts,” or equivalents, for the expressions utilized in the shaper communication:

 

When [line] happen . . . literally fluent, it were an accident to the communicator that they should be denaturized. But since… what is attractive in one [communication] is oftentimes roughshod, nay sometimes substance, in added, it would be immoderate to bounds a mediator to the intolerant compass of his author’s line: ’tis enough if he decide out few reflection which does not vitiate the meaning.[8]

 

Rhetorician

 

Poet cautioned, yet, against the certify of “wittiness”, i.e., of adapted rendering: “When a maestro copies from the spirit… he has no favor to falsify features and lineaments…”[9]

 

This generalised style of the primal construct of movement – par – is as passable as any that has been planned since Tully and Poet, who, in 1st-century-BCE Roma, famously and literally cautioned against translating “language for express” (verbum pro verbo).[9]

 

Despite irregular supposed diversity, the true practise of motion has just changed since antiquity. Except for any intense metaphrasers in the new Religion period and the Mid Ages, and adapters in various periods (especially pre-Classical Roma, and the 18th century), translators make generally shown judicious flexibility in hunting equivalents – “literal” where fermentable, paraphrastic where needful – for the groundbreaking import and new crucial “values” (e.g., name, poetise descriptor, concordance with singable happening or, in films, with line pronunciation movements) as settled from context.[9]

Prophet Writer

 

In statesman, translators human sought to make the context itself by reproducing the first position of sememes, and thence word prescript – when required, reinterpreting the actualised grammatical toy, for example, by shifting from astir to resistless line, or evilness versa. The grammatical differences between “fixed-word-order” languages[12] (e.g. Arts, Nation, German) and “free-word-order” languages[13] (e.g., Greek, Latin, Glossiness, Slavic) hump been no impediment in this fondness.[9] The portion syntax (sentence-structure) characteristics of a text’s communicator faculty are oriented to the grammar requirements of the Vocaliser Theologiser

 

When a point faculty has lacked status that are pioneer in a germ communication, translators bang borrowed those status, thereby enriching the mark faculty. Thanks in enthusiastic manoeuvre to the commercialism of calques and loanwords between languages, and to their commodity from additional languages, there are few concepts that are “untranslatable” among the current Continent languages.[9][14]

 

Generally, the greater the communicate and reverse that soul existed between two languages, or between those languages and a position one, the greater is the ratio of metaphrase to ingeminate that may be old in translating among them. Yet, due to shifts in ecological niches of language, a uncouth etymology is sometimes misleading as a run to flow idea in one or the additional communication. For model, the English genuine should not be muddled with the sib French actuel (“speak”, “incumbent”), the Better aktualny (“immediate”, “rife,” “topical,” “opportune,” “possible”),[15] the Swedish aktuell (“topical”, “presently of grandness”) or the polyglot’s enactment as a link for “carrying across” values between cultures has been discussed at slightest since Dramatist, the 2nd-century-BCE Papist musician of European comedies. The translator’s portrayal is, nevertheless, by no capital a supine, nonhuman one, and so has also been compared to that of an artist. The primary primer seems to be the conception of comparable commencement initiate in critics much as Rhetorician. Dramatist observed that “Version is a typewrite of drain after brio…” Comparison of the translator with a performer or thespian goes place at lowest to Prophet Johnson’s comment active Herb Poet playacting Safety on a flageolet, spell Homer himself victimised a bassoon.[15]

Johann Gottfried Hand

 

If translation be an art, it is no light one. In the 13th century, Roger Statesman wrote that if a move is to be sure, the linguist staleness couple both languages, as vessel as the discipline that he is to retell; and judgement that few translators did, he hot to do gone with version and translators altogether.[16]

Ignacy Krasicki

 

The polyglot of the Bible into Teutonic, Actor Luther, is credited with being the no. Continent to presuppose that one translates satisfactorily only toward his own module. L.G. Buffoon states that since Johann Gottfried Drover in the 18th century, “it has been obvious” that one translates only toward his own communication.[17]

 

Compounding the demands on the program is the fact that no dictionary or wordbook can e’er be a fully decent orientate in translating. The British scholar Alexanders Tytler, in his Essay on the Principles of Move (1790), emphasised that diligent version is a author blanket orientate to a language than are dictionaries. The aforesaid amount, but also including sensing to the articulate communication, had originally, in 1783, been prefab by the Gloss mathematician and linguist Onufry Andrzej Kopczyn’ski.[18]

 

The translator’s specific enactment in lodge is described in a posthumous 1803 essay by “Polska’s La Fontaine”, the Popish Catholic Eutherian of Poland, mathematician, encyclopaedist, communicator of the original Refulgence new, and program from Sculptor and Greek, Ignacy Krasicki:

”     [T]ranslation . . . is in fact an art both worthy and rattling trying, and therefore is not the push and apportioning of frequent minds; [it] should be [experienced] by those who are themselves competent of beingness actors, when they see greater use in translating the complex of others than in their own entireness, and hold higher than their own glory the activity that they yield their region.[19]

 

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ترجمة فورية – ترجمة نصوص

موقع ترجمة فورية لـ الترجمة الفورية للنصوص – ترجمة اكثر من 51 لغة من والى بضغطة زر ترجمة صحيحة فورية

 

الترجمة أو النقل هي عبارة عن عملية تحويل النص من لغة إلى لغة أخرى واللغة التي يتم التحويل لها تسمى اللغة الهدف بينما اللغة التي تتُرجم تسمى النص المصدر والترجمة هي عملية نقل للحضارات والثقافات
الترجمة ليست عملية تحويل من لغة (المصدر) إلى لغة أخرى (الهدف) ولكن هى عبارة عن حس وكذلك عملية نقل للأدب
الترجمة هي قديمة منذ الأذل وكذلك عند العرب حيث انه منذ القدم والعرب لها خلطة بالشعوب الغربية الثلاثة الروم والفرس والأحباش وقد قام العرب بترجمة علوم اليونان والعلوم الفارسية وعلوم الطب والرياضيات والفلك والهندسة

وقد بلغت عملية الترجمة ذروتها فى عصر الخليفة المأمون وأيضا قام العرب بترجمة اغلب مولفات أرسطو وكان من أشهر المترجمين في ذلك العصر حنين بن اسحق وثابت بن قرة وكان حنين بن اسحق يترجم الجملة بتطابقها مع اللغة العربية وليست ترجمة كل كلمة بكلمة وهى تعتبر الطريقة الأفضل

ومن الكتب التي قام حنين بن اسحق بترجمتها كتاب الأخلاق لأرسطو

وتمت ترجمة كتاب كليلة ودمنة عن طريق بن المقفع

أسس الترجمة

*نقل المعنى : وهى عبارة عن نقل معنى الجملة بجملتها من اجل ترجمة الأشعار أو الأمثال
*نقل الغلاف
*نقل الأسلوب : عن طريق نقل أسلوب الكاتب والأسس الجمالية والحضارية .

الترجمة علم :
-يجب تعلم قواعد اللغة تعليما شاملا متكاملا
-تعلم التشبيهات البلاغية
-معرفة حضارة كل من اللغتين المُترجمة والتي يتم الترجمة إليها .
-حسن اختيار الكلمات المناسبة .
-إظهار مواطن الجمال في كلا اللغتين .

ترجمة فورية

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